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26 years
Hello if the brain membrane pierced What is Awareidah?
Jun 10, 2013

Dr. Zakia Dimassi Pediatrics
Traumatic brain injury as a result of head trauma can result in many forms of damage to the brain. Damage to the outer brain cover, aka the cortex, can take many forms:
1- Concussion: traumatic brain injury without substantial damage to the brain; completely reversible dysfunction; symptoms include headache, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, impaired consciousness or gaps in memory (amnesia) that persists for a short period after the onset of the injury (also known as anterograde amnesia).
2- Brain contusion: here the cortex is bruised in some zones. Symptoms include central paralysis, cranial nerve deficits or speech disorders, impaired consciousness for >60 min, memory gaps that last for >24 hrs &include the time period before accident (antegrade +retrograde).
3- Brain compression: Localized bruising or bleeding results in disruption to the blood-brain barrier. This means that the connections between cells in the blood vessels are disrupted, resulting in fluid flowing into the cerebral tissue and brain swelling. Typical symptoms include impaired consciousness up to coma, arms &legs extended &spastic, broad pupils That don't become smaller in size when exposed to light, &failure of heart &lung functions.
4- Cerebral cortical contusions: the brain hits against skull bones due to the speed of trauma, resulting in damage on both the side of trauma &the opposite side.
5- Intracranial bleed: can occur on 3 levels:
a/ between brain and skull with resulting widening of the pupil on the same side of the bleed, &paralysis in the opposite half of the body,
b/in between layers of meninges (the membrane that envelopes the brain and spine) &here blood accumulates slowly so symptoms may not occur immediately,
c/underneath meninges, resulting in enlargement of brain chambers (ventricles) and brain swelling., d/diffuse injury, which may have long-term effects on consciousness (coma)